In radiation therapy, 3D printing has been investigated to create phantoms as well as custom patient-specific devices, such as bolus or brachytherapy applicators. In a study
on 3D printed bolus for electron radiation therapy, Su, et. al describe their process to create patient-specific bolus, which they designed to follow their electron treatment planning process using Eclipse. A treatment plan is created and bolus is added to the plan. Then all images related to the treatment plan are exported to a bolus design algorithm where the Eclipse bolus is generated such that it is 3D-printable. The bolus is optimized for patient fit as well as dose distribution. The patient can then be imaged to confirm fit and to perform a final dose calculation. These 3D-printed boluses result in ideal dose distributions and conform well to complex anatomical features. (1)
3D printing can also be used in radiation therapy to create patient-specific phantoms for QA based on CT or MR images of the patient. Gear, et. al investigated creating prototypes of 3D printed liquid-fillable liver, spleen, and kidney shells, which resulted in patient-specific phantoms that were durable and able to be reused for multiple SPECT and PET/CT scanning protocols (2).